[ Technologie ] Les révolutions du DARPA

Discussion dans 'Actualité' créé par Guest, 3 Juin 2004.

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    Guest ex membre
    Voici les plus intéressants projets mis en oeuvre par le "Defense Science Office" pour les années à venir.

    Sachant que 90% des programmes du darpa aboutissent on peut esperer des révolutions d'ici 5 à 10 ans.

    :arrow: Self Decontaminating Surfaces

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    The goal of this effort is to explore, identify, and develop creative material technologies for the ultimate purpose of defining a coating system that is biocidal at the surface and exhibits self-cleaning/renewal behavior. One example found in nature is the lotus leaf, which has a surface morphology within two distinct dimensional ranges: one morphological feature at the 10-nm dimension and one at the 15-micron dimension. It is this surface morphology, along with the hydrophobic chemical nature of the leaf material, that gives the surface its remarkable self-cleaning properties.
    En gros, ils planchent sur une matière "auto-lavante", qui se laverait toute seule :), la base de leur recherche est la feuille de lotus, petite fleur qui possède ces propriétés fabuleuses.

    :arrow: Signaling Pathways

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    Innovative ideas are needed for the development of nanoprobes that enable real-time observation of cellular events without disrupting the normal functioning of the cell. If successful, this research will lay the foundation for technologies that will enable an ‘inside-look’ at cellular signal processing as opposed to the limited input-output experiments that are used currently to study cells. Once the pathways are elucidated, it is anticipated that these nanoprobes could potentially be used to interrupt and control transcription pathways in response to specific events.
    Ils développent les "nanoprobes", petits "intercepteurs" étant insérés dans des cellules afin de déterminer leur comportements et à terme de le controler (pour par exemple etre utilisés pour faire "mourir" une cellule infectée par un cancer ou une maladie)

    :arrow: Nastic Structures

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    DSO is exploring technological developments that will enable the development of a new class of active materials that can mimic the ability of plants to generate large strains while still performing a structural function. 
    
    Plants generate motion for activities such as prey capture and sun tracking by modulating the fluid pressure within 10-100 micron diameter structural cells. This pressure modulation is achieved by actively transporting fluid through the cell walls. Essentially these plant structures are highly distributed and redundant hydraulic actuation systems.
    
    The impetus for this work is the desire to develop a highly controllable and reversible material system that can generate 10 Megapascals and 20 percent in blocked stress and free strain, respectively. The ultimate goal is the development of plant-inspired actuation systems that possess the power density of conventional hydraulic systems for application in military adaptive or morphing structures.
    Un peu comme un couplage de la plante et du beton armé, pour arriver a développer des structures qui produiraient de l'air/auraient les memes capacités que les plantes (voir des structures dotées de la capacité de "morphing")

    :arrow: Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL)

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    The mission of the PAL program is to radically improve the way computers support humans by enabling systems that are cognitive, i.e., computer systems that can reason, learn from experience, be told what to do, explain what they are doing, reflect on their experience, and respond robustly to surprise. More specifically, PAL will develop a series of prototype cognitive systems that can act as an assistant for commanders and staff. Successful completion of this program will usher in a new era of computational support for a broad range of human activity. 
    Facile à comprendre mais pour ceux qui pigent pas l'anglais : Développer des ordinateurs dotés de raison, capables d'apprendre de leurs erreurs, anticiper les actions de l'utilisateur, expliquer ce qu'ils font, communiquer leurs "expériences" entre eux.

    :arrow: Bio-Computation

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    To develop a computational framework that enables the construction of sophisticated models of intracellular processes that can be used to predict and control the behavior of living cells. In addition, to generate new computational paradigms and engineering applications that utilize biomolecules as an information processing, sensing, or structural components.
    Développer un modèle intercellulaire utilisé pour prédire et controler les réactions des cellules humaines (Bien qu'utilisé dans la recherche, ce projet n'est pas fort apprécié par le monde scientifique : a terme, il pourrait servir de "backdoor" dans le corps humain)

    Sources
    Darpa : Http://www.Darpa.mil/
    Dso : Http://www.Darpa.mil/dso/
    Guest, 3 Juin 2004
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